Wednesday, July 29, 2015


Mount Everest

Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world. It is at an elevation of 29,035 feet(8850 meters). It is in the mountain range called the Himalayas. The summit ridge of this highest peak separates Nepal and China. Each of these two countries has a special name for this mountain. The Nepalese name is "Sagarmatha", which means 'Goddess of the sky'. The Tibetan name is "Chomolungma", which means 'Mother goddess of the universe'. In English, Mount Everest is named after Sir George Everest, the first person to record the height and location of the mountain.

On May 29, 1953, Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal became the first human beings to conquer Mount Everest. On April 22, 1993, Pasang Lhamu Sherpa became the first Nepalese woman to climb to the top of Mount Everest.

Mount Everest is one of the highest mountains in the world. It is part of the Himalayan mountains. They were formed in the last million years. After the supercontinent of Laurasia broke up millions of years ago, India moved slowly north towards Asia and then crashed into him. The seabed between the two plates (the earth's
 crust is divided into large areas of land called plates) was crumbled and pushed up on the northern edge of India to form mountains. These two crustal plates are moving, so the Himalaya rose higher. 
The world's highest mountain, Mount Everest is growing two inches taller each year. Satellite technology says the mountain is currently 29,107 feet. First recognized as the highest out in 1852, got its western name ten years later, in 1862. Mount Everest was named after Sir George Everest (1790-1866), a British surveyor. Inspectors do not agree on the height of Mount Everest. The British government in 1800 thought the height was 29,002 feet. In 1954, the government of India said it is 29,028 feet, but a widely used unofficial figure says it is 29,141 feet! Mount Everest lies on the border between Nepal and Tibet. The people of the Western Hemisphere were not allowed to climb Mount Everest until early 1920. The first known ascent that rose to the top was made by a New Zealander named Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Napalese name. He climbed the mountain in 1953. Since then Everest has been climbed by 400 people. Access is restricted by the Nepalese to avoid too much damage to the environment. Mount Everest is 97 degrees below zero, talk about cold!

Definition of Mount Everest : a mountain in the central Himalayas on the border of Tibet and Nepal; the highest mountain peak in the world.
Nepali Name : Sagarmatha (which means Goddess of the sky) 
Tibetan Name : Chomolungma (which means mother Goddess of the Universe)
Height : 8848 meters or 29,029 ft 
Location : On the border between Nepal and Tibet, where all of the worlds 14 Eight thousand meter peaks are found.
Longitude : 86ยบ55'40' E Latitude latitude 270 45’ N and 280 0’ N and longitude 800 30’ E and 870 0’ E in the Solukhumbhu District of Sagarmatha Zone of the kingdom of Nepal
Local People : Sherpas and Tibetan


The music which is played during an event like jatras, fairs, festival, ceremony, etc are called folk music. It is also played along with folk songs. Folk music is associated with a particular place, race, religion and culture, etc. Generally, folk musical instruments are made using the locally available materials. Madal, Sarangi, Jhyali, Sankha, etc are some examples of folk musical instruments.
The folk music represents the culture of a certain place and race. Each community has its own culture and tradition, and is associated with its common or peculiar musical instrument s.  Such musical instrument s differ according to the place and caste. Kin and jhyali are the common musical instrument s of the Newar community living in the Kathmandu valley and other cities of Nepal. Yalamber is a popular musical instrument of the Kirants of eastern Nepal. Sarangi is a typical musical instrument of Gandarva community of Pokhara. Damphu is an essential musical instrument of Tamang. Panchai Baja is played by Damai community during the wedding ceremony.

Along with folk songs, various musical instruments are also played in different festivals, jatras and ceremonies in Nepal. Like folk songs, musical instruments also differ according to place, race, religion and culture. A brief introduction of musical instruments played in Nepal.
Madal: It is one of the most popular musical instruments of the Nepalese community. This musical instrument was first used by the Magar community. Later on, it gained popularity throughout the country. It is made by making a hollow (big hole) in a piece of thick log and its both open sides are covered with skin. It is carried around the waist and played by both hands.

Sarangi: It is a traditional musical instrument of the Gandarva community of Kaski district. It is made of Khiri wood. It has four wires and is played by rubbing and bow on the wires. The people of the Gandarva community play the Sarangi along with there own local songs that talk about the various incidents that happened in the country.

Flute(Bansuri/Murali): It is made by making a hole in a small piece of hollow bamboo pipe. It is a popular musical instrument throughout the country. It is played by blowing air with our mouth.

Jhyali/Jhyamta/Jhurma: It is one of the musical instruments of Panchai Baja. It is made of bronze metal. It is played with our both hands.

Narasingha: It is a also one of the musical instruments of Panchai Baja, and is made of copper. It is long and curved like a half circle.

Sahanai: It is also a part of Panchai Baja. It is made of metal and played by blowing air with our mouth.
Nagara/Damaha; It is also one of the musical instruments of Panchai Baja. It is like a Nagara but small in size.

Tyamko: It is made up of large shell of the conch found in the sea and ocean. It is played by blowing air with our mouth. It is played during puja and other religious ceremonies of the Hindus. It is also blown when dead body is taken to the ghat for cremation.

Khainchadi: It is made of wood covered with skin and is played when Roila, Balana, etc songs are sung. It is also played during Bhajan-kirtan by hindus.

Pungi: It is made of coconut shell and a hollow bamboo pipe. It is played in the terai to show the snake dance.

Yalamber: It is made of bamboo with two wires. It is used by the kirant community.

Tunga: This is a popular musical instrument used in the Himalaya region. It is made from rhododendron wood and has four wires like the sarangi.

Ekatare: It is used by the sages and ascetics. It is made of wood, leather and string.

Urni: It is used by the Dhimal community and made of the bark of coconut, skin and stick.

Dhol/Dholak: It is made of wood which is hollow inside and is covered with leather.

Shringinad: It is made of the horn of Krishnasar and is used by the sages.
Phasmuk: It is used in Limbu community and made of three pieces of bamboo.
Dhyangro: It is used by a witch doctor like Dhami-Jhankri and made of wood and leather.
Hudko: It is like a Dhamaru and used in the Mid-western and Far-western regions.
Pung: It is made of the horn of an ox and is popular among the Kirant community of Solu area.
Binayo: It is popular among the Kiranti people. It is made by making a hole in a piece of bamboo and thread is connected to both ends.
Damphu: This musical instrument is used in Tamang community and made by covering the wood with the leather.
Masak: It looks like the Sarangi and is used in Bajhang district.
Dafali: It is used in the terai region of the Mid-west and village in Mithila. It is circular wooden frame with one side covered with leather. It is played during the Holi festival.
Murchung: It is made of iron and it produces the sound like Binayo. It is also popular among the Kiranti people.
Dakkrai: This is used in Mithila area and is made of wood joining six wires.
Irlung Pipari: It is used in Kusunda Community and played by blowing.

Panchai Baja is one of the oldest and unique musical instruments of Nepal. It consists of five different musical instruments. They are: Narasigha, Jhyali, Sahanai, Nagara and Tyamko. It is played in Nepal only so it gives the identity of our country. This musical instrument is played during the wedding ceremony by the Damai community. Such musical instrument is being displaced by the imported band musical instrument in urban areas and is being displaced slowly in rural areas. The following measures should be taken to continue the practice of Panchai Baja in our society.
-      -    The Damai community who are involved in playing this musical instrument cannot earn their living only by playing this instrument so they are diverted in other occupations. Government should make such a provision that this community can earn their livelihood by involving in this profession.

-     -     Panchai Bajas should also be made compulsory during other ceremonies like observing National Days besides wedding ceremony.


Nepal's various terrain maybe a mountain biker's dream journey come back true. Mountain biking offers an environmentally sound manner of exploring this magnificent country, its landscape, and living heritage. as a result of this can be a Spartan, laborious mode of travel, it's additionally thought of the thanks to traveling by the 'purists'. There are many dirt roads and trails in Nepal to satisfy each mountain biker's wildest fantasy. Mountain biking is additionally suggested if you want to explore the urban centers like Pokhara and Kathmandu and the outskirts. Imagine, if you may, a ride through lush inexperienced rice fields, through hamlets, the hillside up and down, along the river bank, around temples, past the road roaming cattle, along the highway, you name it. Through snow, monsoon heavy shower, wonderful light-weight effects, or fierce headwinds, looking on place and season. The adventurous souls might arrange extended visits to such exotic locales as Tibet, Namche Bazaar, and western Nepal. you'll even do the whole length of Nepal across the plains. What you'll or cannot do on the mountain bikes is proscribed solely by your imagination. it absolutely was within the mid-Nineteen Eighties that Biking activity extremely took off in Kathmandu within the mid-Nineteen Eighties. Enthusiasts flew with their bikes from East Asia to Tibet to try and do a 2-week journey from there over the passes (17,000-ft) to Nepal. This landmark event places Nepal squarely on the mountain biker's map. so Kathmandu nowadays is taken into account a Mecca for mountain bicyclists, drawing many enthusiasts from all corners of the planet once a year.

Bike Routes 

Some of the regular routes that cowl the valley are those that weave in and out of Bhaktapur, Patan, and Kathmandu. Day 1: Kathmandu (24 km/ 3-4 hours): begin from the nerve center of recent Kathmandu, the Durbar sq., and wind your high to holy Swambhu, additionally referred to as the temple of monkey. Then ride up and over the ring road, to say, Kakani, and reenter Kathmandu from the Northwest corner through terraced farmland and hamlets abandoned by time. Day 2: Bhaktapur (30 km/ 4-5 hours): Begin at Thimi, the restored capital of Bhaktapur and head up the tortuous road to Changu-Narayan Temple and come back via farming villages. Then head right down to Pashupati along the bank of the Bagmati River, and land up at a Buddhist shrine, the Bouddhanath stupa. Day 3: Patan (51 km/8-9 hours): begin in Patan, winding your approach through the maze of alleys with ornately-carved windows, taking in historical sites like the Krishna Temple,  Patan Durbar Square, and Golden Temple. Then head southeast past Ring Road to Panauti along a tough off-road path. Then come back to Kathmandu via a paved road or an equivalent path. Alternatively, you may leave to Dakshinkali or Godavari. alternative outlying places fashionable with the enthusiasts are Nagarjuna, Nage Gompa, Tokha, Ichangu Narayan, Gomcha, Bungmati, Kakani, Dhulikhel, and Nagarkot.

Further mountain bike trips are those extending from:

Dhulikhel to Kodari (82 km), close to the Tibetan border Naubise to Royal Chitwan Park along the Rajpath through such scenic places because the Palung Valley, Daman, and also the not-so-scenic industrial city of Hetauda within the plains Hetauda to Muglang by approach of Narayanghat Lakeside Pokhara up and along the ridge to Sarangkot purpose, and continuing on to Naudanda from where you'll soak up the breathtaking close-up read of the Himalayas and also the Pokhara Valley Naudanda to Pokhara through Lumle, Beni and Birethanti, Naudanda to Pokhara (32 km) either via Sarangkot path described in a pair of. or the highway track, that starts with a tortuous half dozen km descent into Modi Khola valley. There are several a lot of choices if you're willing to require the time to seek out out and blaze your own path.


Rafting is inarguably the simplest manner of exploring Arcadian Nepal. The waters supply one thing to everybody: from grade 5-5+ rivers with several raging Whitewater Rafting for the brave and therefore the adventurous, to grade 2-3 rivers with a number of rapids for the laid-back sort. the gorgeous issue is that almost about anybody, whether or not recent or terribly young, can raft. Moreover, it will either be a two-week trip or a 2-3 day trip-you decide.

RAFTING Kayaking Canyoning the very fact that you simply wish to raft down Nepal's difficult rivers means you've got some time past graduated from the nursery faculty of "Row, row, row your boat". the various 'raftable' rivers in Nepal meander between canyons, villages, and forests, wildlife, like pine needle through the thread, weaving the country's wealthy tapestry of ethno-culture and bio-diversity. Originating within the bowels of the Himalaya, these rivers flow across the length and breadth of Nepal and neighboring India, before emptying largely into the Bay of Bengal.

Paddle rafting is strongly suggested. It involves teamwork with the river runner barking directions from his perch on the aft. you'll be able to either do participatory rafting, where you and your cluster are given a runner and barebone workers support, or a "luxury safari-style" trip where a full team of workers is provided to handle your group's each want and wish. Mind you, rafting isn't the sole thanks to traveling downstream. a number of firms provide inflatable kayaks or fiberglass kayaks for rent.

An extreme sport popular in Europe, Canoeing is now available in Nepal. Canoeing gives you the freedom to explore some of the most ruggedly beautiful, yet forbidden places in the world.


October through mid-December and March through early might are the most effective times. it's doable in winter, however, you've got to look at out for hypothermia. Throughout monsoon (June through September), the whitewater sections are dangerous, however, gentler stretches are runnable.

Raft Route

River Profiles: up to now the govt. has opened sections of ten rivers for industrial rafting.

Karnali (arcade 4-5): Nepal's longest, it flows through steep, jagged canyons where the rapids are tightly-packed, giving continuous difficult water in the slightest degree flows. Either a bus ride to far-western Nepal or a flight to Nepalgunj will take you there. The river section takes concerning seven days to navigate, at the same time as you explore canyons and waterfalls. For those craving an adrenaline rush, this river could be a should.

Sun Kosi (grade 4-5): this is often the longest river trip (270km) offered in Nepal. you start at Dolalghat simply 3 hours out of Katmandu and finish in Chatara, down the Gangetic Plain of North India, nine or ten days later. The Sun Kosi starts off with comparatively delicate rapids the primary number of days. The surprises sneak up on you throughout the last days. it's thought of one in all the world's prime ten classic river journeys.

Trisuli (grade 3+): the most affordable river trip offered in Nepal, where you pay $20 or thus per day. though comparatively unsafe throughout the monsoon, it's fun otherwise. A Trisuli river trip may be combined with visits to Chitwan or Pokhara. it's undoubtedly the foremost well-liked of Nepal's raftable rivers.

Kali Gandaki (grade 5-5+): Sacred Hindu river, here the rapids are technically difficult, winding through canyons and gorges. beginning at Baglung, you may raft right down to Ramdighat in five-six days. you will then continue on to the confluence with the Trisuli at Devghat, adding another a hundred thirty km and 3-4 days.

Bhote Kosi (grade 4-5): some of the hours out of Kathmandu, it's twenty-six km of continuous white water. maybe tired two days. it's the steepest river rafted in Nepal, requiring Zen-like concentration from the river-runner, and giving an adrenaline rush even in low-water months. beginning higher than Barabise, you raft right down to the dam at Lamosangu.

Upper Sun Kosi (grade 1-2): Begins at Khadichour and ends in Dolalghat. The river is lined with clean sandy beaches, that build for a nice picnic or camping spots. The trip offers a good family getaway, removed from the madding crowd.

Marsyangdi (grade 5-5+): The raging Marsyangdi is four days of continuous white water. It begins from the village of Ngadi, up from Besisahar. because the rapids are unrelenting, it's suggested that you simply consult corporations with variant expertise on underneath their belt. For individuals yearning for a 5-6 tour with raging rapids, the Marsyangdi is unquestionably where it's at.

Other rivers: The Bheri in western Nepal may be combined with a visit to the Royal Bardia National park. The Arun from Tumlingtar is another choice.


Safety is the most important part of any river trip. Choosing a professional veteran rafting company is the first step. So it helps to abide by the following tips:
Pick your river with care. Seek information from a rafting agency, local experts, and literature on river levels and difficulty.
There should be a minimum of two rafts per trip so that one can help when a fall happens from the other.
Carry first-aid kit, survival and rescue gear.
Check to see that end loops and the leash are adequate before you push off. This makes it easier to keep hold of your boat when swimming big rapids, and also in the event of rescue.
Be a team person, paddle synchronously.
For boats, paddles and helmets, loud colors are recommended.
Wear life jackets and helmets, properly too.
Keep your feet and arms inside the raft at all time.
When you fall off into a rapid, float on your back, with your feet downstream.

Tuesday, July 28, 2015


People in Nepal commonly welcome you Namaste as a traditional salute (means I salute the divine in you) which is wisely used in the most part of country. About 23 million Nepalese are made of 69 different cultural and linguistic group also known as ethnic groups living in different, regions of the country. Mostly each ethnic group has their own unique costumes, speak their own languages or dialects, and follow their own religious practices. They live under different diverse geographic and environmental orientations, from the low plains near the Indian border, northward through the middle hills of Mahabharat range and valleys, and up to the high plain valleys of the Himalayan zone. 

However, the globalization motives and innovations effect to the Nepalese society which made many changes day by day in addition of several infrastructural developments new roads building, modern public education, democracy since 1990 and Federal Democratic Republic since in on 23 May 2008, and even rapid innovation of information technology, Internet access are making massive changes brought among new generation. More and more Nepalese, especially young folks speak Nepali and fluent English language, dresses western style clothes most of the time and generally relate to the outside world. 

In Nepal generally two major groups of people can be found in high Himalayan region Tibitan origin (Tibeto-Burman or Bhot Burmes) and in low land to mid hill Indo-Aryan (Bharopeli) origin groups. Himalayan region settlements of Tibetan-speaking groups Sherpa, Tibetan origin Gurung of Manang, Mustang and Dolpo region and Thakali of Mustang’s high plain are found in sub alpine to trans Himalayan areas. Outside Nepal, the best known are the Sherpa people who has gained world renown and interest because of their mountaineering skills. In fact, the word “Sherpa,” meaning mountain guide in English, comes from the group’s proud Sherpa name. 

In the mid hill mostly settled Rai, Limbu, Tamang, Magar, Sunwar, Gurung and Chepang groups as well as other mongoloid groups live in this areas. The Brahmans, Chhetris, Newar and Thakuris and different occupational groups Kami, Damai Sarki, Gaine are spread generally over most parts of the country. In towns Newar, Marbadi, Punjabi, Brahaman, Kshetri and other mixed groups are also settled. The groups of Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Magar are popular as Gurkha solder in the world.

In Terai Plain Brahaman, Kshetri, Rajput, Tharu, Danuwar, Majhi, Darai, Rajbansi, Satar, Dhimal, and Jhangar, Singh, Jha, Yadav and Lal(Mithila) people inhabit in the dun, valleys and different occupational groups are living and being bound together by the ideas of peace and harmony. Terai’s Mithila groups are popular for their authentic traditional arts and paintings. But however mostly either living in hilly region or Terai region their major occupation is traditional agriculture broadly adopted. 

Social Structure
As Nepal being a very broad diversified home land of several ethnical groups it has common social family structure. In general living in joint family system at a home, respecting and following own socio-traditional conducts generation to generation. Showing physical affection openly in public is restricted; gents and ladies socialize separately both before and after marriage with family gatherings. Normally marriage is arranged by parents with help of marriage consular called Lahmi. Among new generations love marriage is also popular now a day. They have right to choose their mate and decide their own future bright. There is no way to say that Nepalese society remained untouched by global changes, mainly in major cities and towns of young generation hugely influenced by information technology of world and adopted several fascinating ways. 

In general mostly Nepalese people are involved in their traditional occupation agriculture. Most of the people those who are living out of town they belongs their own family farm land where they grow both main crops and different cash crops seasonally. About 76% of total population in Nepal still belongs to traditional agriculture system as their main source of economy and rest of do other jobs as cottage industries, general manufactures, goods trading, government officials, hospitality tourism and others. All together still about 33% of total populations are dependent in agriculture.

In normal way Nepalese people’s food habit can be marked as a rice culture social adoption. Nepalese main course of meal known as Dal-Bhat-Tarkari traditionally which is perfect combination of carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and fat. The real wholesome Dal-Bhat-Tarkari is being eaten all over Nepal generally and it is habitual way of twice a day. Besides morning and late afternoon time tea, coffee other drinks and light food snacks are also can be eaten normally. Dall is well cooked lentil soup from different beans, Bhat is boiled rice, Tarkari is curried vegetables, pickle of seasonal vegetable or fruits, salad and curried or fried meat as a non-vegetarian food can be eaten commonly. Well refined mustard oil, ghee are used for the typical Nepalese cooking propose of curry items for taste and flavor spices are used such as cumin seed, coriander, black pepper, sesame seed, turmeric, garlic, ginger, methi (fenugreek), bay leaf, clove, cinnamon, pepper, chilies, mustard seed and salt added by taste. 

In the mountain area, where rice is growing very less, millet, barley, bark wheat and maize are growing commonly in suitable climate so people of there mostly eat Dhindo with Gundruk or different vegetable curry, meat curry, home made pickle, yoghurt and milk as a their main course but they also like to have Dall Bhat time to time. This authentic tradition of food habit is very common all over Nepal’s mountain areas. There is also several common continental food items are available in cities abundantly as well many countries food items are prepared by several restaurants and fast food stalls of around main hub of tourists.

There are many specific dressing style in Nepal as a country is being home of multi cultural and lingual groups people. Most Nepalese ethnic groups have their own unique style of dress according to region and culture. Among gents Daura Suruwal Dhaka Topi,T- shirt, Shirt Pant, different casual wears and ladies Kurta Salwar, Saries Blouse (Cholo) T- shirt, Shirt Pant, different casual wears are commonly worn by Nepalese people all over the country. In the cities particularly, young hearts both men and women often dress in western style clothing, while elder women mostly wear Saries Blouse (Cholo), Kurta Salwar modestly.

Nepal is multi religious country in the world so different ethnic groups live with their own way of religious practice, lifestyle, language, culture and tradition with ever peace of harmony in society. About 80% of total populations are Hindu religion follower lives in the all over Nepal’s east to west up to Maha Bharat range in north, about 10% Buddhist religion people among live bellow of Himalayan region to mid hill, valleys and in towns together 4% Muslim religious people and rest of other religious people live in different parts of the country. In Hindu community every ritual ceremony handled by priest (pundit), by Lama (monk) in Buddhism community as well by Mullah in Muslim community. 

In term of vast range geographical varied land orientation features of the country Hinduism among Indo-Aryan communities influence in the lower elevation and the Buddhism among Tibetan-origin in the Himalayan region and other different parts of the Nepal. In Nepal moreover traditionally, Buddhism and Hinduism both were never two distinct religions for societies they believe these two religion have inter relation since then so that share faiths and worship common deities in temples, monasteries and mostly pilgrimage by both communities people. Though Nepal has number of religious group they always live in peace and harmony. There is not any record of religious conflict in Nepal yet. All Nepali has respected the national feeling of ‘unity in diversity, Nepali’s specialty and establishing own reorganization to the world.

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